Public Speaking midterm
2) meaning are in people not words- everybody can take it in a different context
3) context and social situations impact perceived meaning-How we approach people, the words we choose, and how we deliver speeches are all dependent on different speaking contexts and social situations.
temporal- According to Joseph DeVito, the temporal dimension "has to do not only with the time of day and moment in history but also with where a particular message fits into the sequence of communication events." The time of day can have a dramatic effect on how alert one's audience is. (School shooting example as well)
social-psychological- You have to know the types of people in your audience and how they react to a wide range of messages
cultural-When we interact with others from different cultures, misunderstandings can result from differing cultural beliefs, norms, and practices. As public speakers engaging in a dialogue with our audience members, we must attempt to understand the cultural makeup of our audience so that we can avoid these misunderstandings as much as possible.
Persuasive- In our everyday lives, we are often called on to convince, motivate, or otherwise persuade others to change their beliefs, take an action, or reconsider a decision.
Entertainment- an array of speaking occasions ranging from introductions to wedding toasts, to presenting and accepting awards, to delivering eulogies at funerals and memorial services in addition to after-dinner speeches and motivational speeches
-Confrontation- the first minute of the speech
-Adaptation- the last minute of the speech
-Release- the minute immediately following the end of the speech
-Some of the major context factors that can heighten this form of anxiety are formality, uncertainty, and novelty.
-Formality- When faced with a more formal public speaking setting, they become intimidated and nervous
-Uncertainty- it is hard to predict and control the flow of information in such contexts, so the level of uncertainty is high. The feelings of context anxiety might be similar to those you experience on the first day of class with a new instructor: you don't know what to expect, so you are more nervous than you might be later in the semester when you know the instructor and the class routine better.
-Novelty- Anxiety becomes more of an issue in communications environments that are new to us
-Demographic analysis, psychographic analysis, situational audience analysis
-audience size, occasion, involuntariness of audience, physical setting
-In order to create effective tools for audience analysis, interview and survey questions must be clear and to the point, focus groups must be facilitated carefully, and you must be aware of multiple interpretations of direct observations or existing research about your audience
-make it appropriate for age, gender, race, socioeconomic status
-make the topic relatable
-don't want to bore audience
-You can use your audience analysis to help you make adjustments to your speech in terms of both how you present the speech within a given environment and also how you adapt your content and delivery based on audience feedback during the speech
-can be considered an active form of research because the researcher is actually conducting the research for the purpose of creating new knowledge
-surveys and interviews
-a good piece of support should be accurate, authoritative, current, and unbiased
-use statistics, definitions, examples, narratives, analogies
-Reference to audience- the speaker has a clear understanding of the audience and points out something unique about the audience
-Quotation- use the words of another person that relate directly to your topic.
-Reference to current event- makes audience aware how current and relevant your topic is to today's world.
Historical reference- this strategy is closely related to the previous one, except that instead of a recent news event you are reaching further back in history to find a relevant reference.
Anecdote- a brief account or story of an interesting or humorous event. Notice the emphasis here is on the word "brief."
Startling statement- startles audience and gets them interested in topic. Often, startling statements come in the form of statistics and strange facts. The goal of a good startling statistic is that it surprises the audience and gets them engaged in your topic.
Question: response or rhetorical, gets the audiences thinking about topic and answer humor. A response question is a question that the audience is expected to answer in some manner. A rhetorical question, on the other hand, is a question to which no actual reply is expected.
Personal reference- refer to a story about yourself that is relevant for your topic. Some of the best speeches are ones that come from personal knowledge and experience. If you are an expert or have firsthand experience related to your topic, sharing this information with the audience is a great way to show that you are credible during your attention-getter.
Humor- We cannot begin to explain all the amazing facets of humor within this text, but we can say that humor is a great way of focusing an audience on what you are saying. However, humor is a double-edged sword. If you do not wield the sword carefully, you can turn your audience against you very quickly. When using humor, you really need to know your audience and understand what they will find humorous.
-The goal is to create categories (or chunks) of information that go together to help support your original specific purpose.
-This pattern is best used when your main points are oriented to different locations that can exist independently. The basic reason to choose this format is to show that the main points have clear locations.
-ex: how laughing effects the body, how bodily effects can help healing, strategies for using humor in healing
-the beginning phrase of the sentence indicates the conclusion of a period of time (now that, thus far).
2) a review of the main points discussed with in the speech
3) a concluding device that helps create a lasting image in audiences' minds
- also allows you to check for inconsistencies and self-contradictory statements
-hold notes naturally
-prepare note cards to trigger recall
-write in large letters
-Impromptu speeches often occur when someone is asked to "say a few words" or give a toast on a special occasion.
-what we do in class
-the speaker maintains his or her attention on the printed page except when using visual aids
-creating concrete images
-limiting information only to what is most relevant
-linking information to what the audience already knows
-making information memorable through language or personalization
-difficult to envision structures or processes (he blood circulation system in the body might be an example of a difficult-to-envision process. To address this type of audience confusion, Rowan suggests a quasi-scientific explanation, which starts by giving a big-picture perspective on the process)
-ideas that are difficult to understand because they are hard to believe (This often happens when people have implicit, but erroneous, theories about how the world works. For example, the idea that science tries to disprove theories is difficult for some people to understand; after all, shouldn't the purpose of science be to prove things? )
Adapting to Your Audience
When you communicate ideas, you need to adapt the way you present those thoughts so they suit the audience. The way you would explain climate change to your grandmother is different from the way you would explain it to a room full of scientists (unless, of course, Grandma is a scientist). Writing is one form of communication, so an important part of writing is adapting how you present your information to fit your audience. This writing symposium explores ways to adapt messages so they are appropriate for their intended audiences.
A Definition of Audience
An audience is the reader or group of readers who read a particular piece of writing. It could be your professor or the grader of an exam; it could be the readers of a blog or a newspaper op-ed column; or it could be the reader of a grant proposal for a million dollars. Each of these audiences has different needs and expectations. It is imperative that you anticipate these needs and expectations, conveying information and arguing ideas with those factors in mind.
Determining the Audience Type
Before you start writing, ask and answer the following questions. These answers will shape the tone and style of your writing.
- Who is your audience? What are the age, gender, education, occupation, economic status, and political, social, and religious beliefs of the audience for whom you are writing?
- What is the level or need of knowledge of your audience? Is it a lay audience, an expert audience, a managerial audience, or some other kind of audience? Does your audience need to read a general overview, a detailed treatise, or about particular facts?
- What is the reading context of your audience? Is the audience going to read this writing as a manuscript, as an Internet blog, or in a newspaper, published report, specialized journal, or popular magazine?
Analyzing an Audience
Once you have figured out who your audience is, what its level and knowledge needs are, and what the reading context is, then you need to do a careful analysis of the audience. You need to think carefully about its background knowledge, reasons for reading your writing, and potential biases. Answering these questions will help shape what you write, as well as how you present it.
- What is the background of your audience? How much does it know about your topic? Does it have first-hand experience with the topic, or does it know only what it has read?
- What are the audience’s reasons for reading your writing? Why do they need to know about the material you are presenting? Is it background information? Is it for making budget or policy decisions? Is the audience looking for evidence of a problem, or is it looking for solutions to a problem?
- Does the audience have biases about your topic? Does it have strong opinions that are unlikely to change? Alternatively, has the audience recognized the need to reexamine its opinions? Is it open to change?
Writing for an Audience
Once you have scoped out your audience, you need to think about the writing itself. What is your purpose? What are the audience’s expectations about the writing? What kind of appeal are you going to make? The answers to these questions will largely be the result of the nature of your audience.
Most important in any piece of writing is to be clear on its purpose. You must be clear in your own mind exactly what your purpose is. You must also clearly convey to your audience what the purpose of the writing is. If you are not clear in your own mind, you cannot convey the purpose to the audience. Even if the purpose of the writing is clear to you, if you fail to convey that purpose to the audience, they will be lost and will turn off.
You need to know your audience’s expectations about the writing. What format is it expecting? Is it expecting a technical piece with many technical terms and definitions? Is it expecting a personal reflection with anecdotes and experiences? An audience expecting technical material will turn off to personal reflections, whereas an audience looking for personal reflections will turn off to technical material.
Most writers try to convince their audience to believe the writing. Even novelists try to convince the audience that their stories are plausible. To do so, writers must appeal to logic, emotion, or some other need. Logic is straightforward, requiring a logical progression of facts that lead to an obvious conclusion. Emotional appeals are less direct and try to elicit such responses as anger, fear, sadness, happiness, love, hope, anxiety, guilt, shame, or jealousy. An audience looking for logic will turn off to emotion; an audience more likely to respond to emotion is unlikely to respond to logic.
In the end, a writer needs to be keenly aware of the audience — of its nature, its context, and its expectations. Misjudging any of these things can result in even technically good writing missing its mark. Writing that misses its mark is not just wasted effort; it is poor writing.
Adapted from Writing@CSU (2007). “Writing guides: Writing Processes: Publishing: Adapting to your audience,” Colorado State University Ft. Collins, CO. Accessed at http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/processes/audmod/index.cfm.