Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9-2 Industrialization: Case Study of Manchester."— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 9-2Industrialization: Case Study of Manchester
2 Goals and Objectives Upon completion students should be able to:
Describe the social and economic effects of industrializationEvaluate the growing tensions between middle and working classes.Identify positive effects of the Industrial Revolution.Describe Manchester as an industrial city.
3 Industrialization Changes Life Factory Work
-Factories pay more than farms.-This led to the demand for more expensive goods
4 Industrial Cities Rise
Urbanization-The rise of population and movement of people leading to the growth of citiesGrowing population provided workforce and market for factory goods.
5 British Industrial cities:
The most industrialized cities were London, Birmingham, Manchester, Liverpool
7 Living ConditionsSickness widespread; epidemics, like cholera, sweep urban slumsLife span in one large city is only 17 yearsWealthy Merchants, factory owners live inluxurious suburban homes
8 Conditions in urban cities
Rapidly growing cities lacked sanitary conditions or building codesCities also lacked adequate housing, education, police and fire protection.
9 Working ConditionsAverage working day 14 hours for 6 days a week, year roundDirty, poorly lit factories injure workersMany coal miners killed by coal dustWomen and children were often exploited in work places.
10 The Middle Class Middle class has comfortable standard of living
Middle Class-skilled workers, merchants, rich farmers, professionalsEmerging middle class is looked down upon by landowners, aristocratsMiddle class has comfortable standard of living
11 The Working Class Laborers’ lives not improved;
some laborers replaced by machinesLuddites, other groups destroyed machinery that puts them out of workUnemployment a serious problem; unemployed riot
12 Positives of the industrial revolution
Created jobs, enriches nation, encourages technological progressEducation expands, clothing cheaper, diet and housing improveWorkers eventually won shorter hours, better wages and conditions
13 Long-Term EffectsImproved living and working conditions still present todayGovernments use increased tax revenues for urban improvementsThe rise of labor unions
14 The Mills of Manchester
Manchester has labor, water power, nearby port at LiverpoolPoor live and work unhealthy, even dangerous, environmentBusiness owners make profits by risking their own money on factoriesEventually, working class sees its standard of living rise some
15 Children in Manchester Factories
Children as young as 6 work in factories;many are injured1819 Factory Act restricts working age, hours
16 Pollution Factory pollution fouls air, poisons river
Nonetheless, Manchester produces goods and creates wealth
The Industrial Revolution made many positive changes on society but just as it did with it along came the bad things for example the tensions between the classes grew: Factory workers were overworked and underpaid, Overseers and skilled workers rose to lower middle class. Factory owners and merchants formed upper middle class. Their conditions in working in the factory was also bad, since kids from 7 years old were put on the factory to work with their parents and to keep them awake they were sometimes beaten up and some kids even lost parts of their body. When machines rose to factories it took a lot of jobs off, They watched their live hoods disappear as machines replaced them. Some created strikes to make the owners give them their positions back.
Industrialization changes life
Industrialization moved rapidly in Britain, cause people won more money in industries than in farms, since people won more money they could take care of themselves in a better way, for example with more money they could buy coal to heat their homes and have a better dinner. They also wore better clothes than they used too, all this benefits made that the city got full of people
looking for jobs.
Even though poverty was still a problem in Britain, the Industrial revolution managed to create a lot of wealth in the nation. The new money was mainly from merchants, factory owners, and shippers. Since there was more wealth the middle class got bigger and the separation between the rich and the poor got even bigger than it was making the class tensions grow.
INDUSTRIALIZATION CHANGES LIFE
The Industrial Revolution changed the way the people of Great Britain lived. The process of what became known as industrialization had positive effects as well as negative effects.
Industrialization brought many jobs, but also with them, brought unhealthy working conditions, air and water pollution, and the events of child labor. It all started with the increase population in cities, also known as urbanization. People living in rural areas heard of "better lives" in cities and so emigrated to cities in the search of these opportunities. Here, they found no development plans, sanitary codes, or building codes due to the rapid growth of people. They also did not have adequate housing, education, or police protection, creating tumults and turmoil. Also, at work, at the great jobs they were to find, the people suffered the most. At times, they were to work extra hours without being paid for them, and they could not say anything about the matter, for they'd get fired. On the other hand, we have the growing middle class, made up of skilled workers, professionals, business people, and wealthy farmers. Nevertheless the bad conditions, some of these people, from the middle class, were able to excel. Some people had inventions that eased the way things were done, and therefore created more jobs and possibilities.
industrialization & class tensions
with the rise of industrialization many cities developed, boasting more than 100,000 inhabitants rose from 22 to 47. in most of these areas population even quadrupled in size, this period was known as urbanization. the vast amount of people living in urban areas provided more labour work for factories. because of the large growth in population, there wasn't time to develop plans, sanitary codes, nor building codes. because of these consequences of overpopulation people started developing epidemics of deadly disease. to increase production, factory owners wanted the machines to be running as many time as possible. the average worker spent 14 hours a day at work, 6 days a week. the was no security for the life of such workers, the government did not aid in case of an accident.
in the late 1800s a new middle class emerged, the one where people were neither rich nor poor. while the middle class was growing the lower working class went all the way around. they watched their livelihoods disappear as machines replaced them.
Upheaval in Industrial Life
The Industrial Revolution had, by the late 1800s, spread to the greater part of Britain, that including the metropolitan borough of Manchester. England, by this time, had become the greatest and strongest point of manufacture in the world, given, it was where the birth of industrialization occurred, due to the economic and political circumstances Great Britain found itself in, as well as the natural resources which could be extracted from the large island. Some people loosely named the nation "Workshop of the World," due to these aspects.
Now, these facts may sound all positive in retrospect, but what most loosely educated people are not aware of, is that there were certain downfalls to the industrialization in Manchester. This main concern which was the social structure and physical health of the citizens of said town, as well as living conditions. Luckily, the journalists of this era paint a quite vivid picture for us to understand just how awful this industrialization came to be for the people of Manchester. An excerpt from a source describes:
The British medical journal illustrates the wretched health conditions by pointing out Manchester has the youngest average death rate for all of its populace. This is in direct correlation to the fact Manchester is the biggest industrialized city in the world at this time. Even in the other industrialized regions in Britain at the time, Manchester had higher ages of average death rates.
Concluding with this, although the industrialization that occurred in Manchester was a broad one and important one, it brought upheaval into British society and homes.
- Lily Sanchez
The Industrialization in Manchester defines the word bittersweet. It had brought many changes to the lives of the British. Greater quantities of people could afford coal to heat their homes, eat greater quantities of quality food, and wear better clothing. The Industrial Revolution brought new wealth for the masses and the individual. People in the middle class enjoyed comfortable lives in pleasant homes.
However not all were as lucky. As urbanization hit full trot, city populations rapidly grew and with it did the filth. Living conditions were horrendous and the chances of people finding good housing, schools, or police protection were slim for the poor working class. Filth piled up on the street and became a part of daily life. Life expectancies were short. One could only wish to live 17 years in the city where they could normally expect to live 38 years in the countryside. The average worker spent 14 hours, sometime more, a day on the job for 6 days a week. Breaks were unjustly short and the pay wasn't nearly enough to support a person and much less compensate the hard labor they endured. Industry also took a toll on the environment. Coal smoke and cloth dyes from factories polluted the air and water. Nevertheless it created a variety of jobs, consumer good, and great wealth.
-Genesis A. Landestoy
Industrial Revolution; Manchester
Manchester is a relatively new city; born of the Industrial Revolution, it took the lead in the world's textile manufacture and production in the late 18th century, a position it held until its decline in the 1960s. Leaders of commerce, science and technology, like John Dalton and Richard Arkwright, helped create a vibrant and thriving economy - most of the nation's wealth was created in this region during Victorian times. But it was undoubtedly textiles, and other associated trades, which dominated and created a young dynamic city, whose very symbol is the worker bee - an emblem repeated in mosaics all over the floor of the Town Hall.
-Kenny R. Gomez
Was the Industrial Revolution beneficial or abusive?
During the industrial revolution, we find that higher wages were earned in factories, which as a domino effect caused both positive and negative consequences. Factory workers gained more money for their homes, could buy better clothing and food as well. Many people could have jobs, causing a shift since people came from rural areas to work on the factories. Many countries went through a great population growth as well. This seems very nice, but it isn't enough for all the bad brought by this Revolution. The problem was that these people were looking for change in a very fast pace; they had NO plans, NO sanitary codes, NOR building codes. They had NO proper housing, NO education, NO security. Cities piled up with trash. Since workers lived in really bad conditions (in a small, dark, dirty apartment room with no windows and with three or more families-just imagine the inhumanity) this caused sickness to spread rapidly. Workers also had to work from six to eight hours with no breaks, 14 hours a day, and 6 days a week. Workers were also endangered by the machinery, accidents occurred often. Also many children and women were employed in factories (in other words taken advantage of) since they could be paid less than men. With all these negatives, can a positive be made? Its true the Industrial Revolution modernized the world and without it the world wouldn't be as it is today, but if peoples rights would have been taken in account then, many lives could have been saved or made better.
Industrialization in Europe
Industrialization is the process of modernization and mass production of most goods. An area where industrialization had a huge effect was in Eastern Europe. It emerged as a need to modernize and unify Europe.Britain led industrialization at first, but it quickly exploded from Spain all the way through Russia.During the 17th and 18th centuries, the city of Manchester, England had evolved into a “Workshop of the World,” yet the city had developed controversy in the aspects of social health/living conditions.
The largest concern of industrialized Manchester was that of the social health and living conditions of the people living in the city. The British medical journal illustrates the wretched health conditions by pointing out Manchester has the youngest average death rate for all of its population. This is in direct correspondence to the fact Manchester is the biggest industrialized city in the world at this time.
The Industralization era was not only remembered by it's inventions, but also for the many negative effects it brought. The living conditions were very poor, they lacked adequate education, housing, and police protection. Streets filled with dirt and garbage. Families living in packed places.All this factors summed up to bring deadly epidemics to Britain killing in large numbers. The average life span became 17 for the working-class people. To agravate this situation more, the working conditions weren't safe and pleasant. Most workers spent 14 hours a day, six days a week. Factories were filled with people from all age ranges, working hard in those dark, filthy places, gaining a salary that was unjust and minimum. Despite, these negative effects, at least it brought many unthinkable great things in that period of time to permit the country, and later on the world to modernize and develop in every way. It created jobs, contributed to the wealth of the nation, helped technological progress and invention,and greatly increased the production of goods and raised the standard of living. Many important inventions were created during this time, spinning jenny, which helped the textile industry progress,and the steam engine, which was the most important invention of this time in my opinion beacuse it propelled boats and also caused the creation of the steam-driven locomotives, making it a cheap way to transport materials and finished products, created more jobs and boosted England's agricultural and fishing industries, which could transport their products to distant cities.
Industrialization is the advancement of developing i
ndustries that use machinery to produce goods. This
development not only revolutionizes a country’s eco
nomy, it also renovates social conditions and class
Effects of Industrialization
-Industry created many new jobs
-Factories were dirty,unsafe and dangerous
-Factory bosses excercised harsh discipline
*Long-Term Effect* Workers won higher wages, shorter hours, better conditions
-Factory workers were overworked and underpaid.
-Overseers and skilled workers rose to lower middle class. Factory owners and merchants formed upper middle class.
-Upper class resented those in middle class eho became wealthier than they were
*Long-Term Effect* Standard of living generally rose
Size of Cites:
-Factories brought job seekers to cities
-Urban areas doubled, tripled, or quadrupled in size
-Many cities specialized in certain industries
*Long-Term Effect* Suburbs grew as people fled crowded cities
-Cities lacked sanitary codes or building controls
-Housing, water, and social services were scarce
- Epidemics swept through the city
*Long-Term Effect* Housing, diet, and clothing improved”